Doggerlandians - the proto-Finnish/Uralic speaking true natives of Doggerland and Britain
By 'Uralic' it's here, of course, meant the branch of the linguistic tree that at its stem in time goes deeper than any language family based on agriculture (and quite possibly the deepest of modern humans), and geographically comprises an area (north and mid-Eurasia) that is bigger than any other. The technical term 'proto-Uralic' doesn't mean that the lineage abruptly started there but deepens into what might be called Altaic/Eurasiatic.
Although the modern Finnish vocabulary may be one which contains among the highest amount of loan-words, it also contains a remarkable old kernel (some 200-300 words) that is not only immensely old but also often reflects more exactly reconstructed "original" words in a way its sister languages do not. This may be due to, among other factors, its westernmost location (see Kvenland - the origin of the Goths).
From Ural to the Baltic Sea and Britain
(to really grasp the significance of this ancient water route please take a look at the islamic Origin of Vikings and Russia)
Klevius intellectual bias warning: There has been a severe "mongoloid complex" (social, not genetic) going on for long in the debate about the original Europeans, not the least among the Samis and the Finns (see what Klevius wrote about the mongoloid complex almost a decade ago). The Finns were introduced to "civilization" via Klevius ethnic people, the Finland-Swedish "colonizers", who, after Sweden's loss of Finland in the 1808-09 war, said "We aren't Swedes anymore, and we don't wanna be Russians, so let's be Finns". So they learned Finnish, many of them translated their Swedish names into Finnish ones, and one of them gathered the ancient Finnish epic Kalevala, all in an effort to strengthen the Finnish ethnicity.
Klevius brief intellectual aid to the background of the topic: Finnish and Sami researchers are possibly the least reliable (together with Afro-centrists) when it comes to the "Urheima" of the Europeans. So you will have a hard time finding info if you don't read Klevius. But keep two basic facts in mind: Proto-Uralic was here before the farmers - proto-Indo-European (PIE) was not, simply because it was tied to farming/pastoralism. And ultimately, no matter if we call it proto-Altaic or something else, what seems certain is that modern humans and their language developed in the very midst of the mongoloid hunting-gathering area (where the >41,000 BP Denisova bracelet below was found), not among farmers.
After the last ice age Doggerland still connected Uralic speaking Sweden (and the Baltic Sea) with Britain a couple of thousands of years before the arrival of farming. The oldest complete skeleton of a Brit (the Cheddar man in Gough's Cave, outside Baath near Bristol) is from this time.
Ago Künnap: From the Ukrainian refuge the people spread over the area that eventually extended from the so-called North Sea Land on the site of the present-day British Isles as far as the Urals. It should be regarded as probable that the Uralic lingua franca was functioning in the area also before the Last Glacial Maximum, consequently before the people gathered in the refuges. It continued functioning in the Ukrainian refuge and, in addition to this, also in the ice-free area, creating a foundation by making languages into the present-day Uralic languages. As a result of people’s spreading out from the larger refuges the whole northward Europe was shared by the Basque and Uralic type of languages.
Klevius: Today's Basques/Iberians have almost nothing to do with Europe's original hunter-gatherers. Samis do. Geneticists have long since proved that ice-age humans entered Europe from Siberia (haplogroup M173 aka R), not Mideast. Linguists have proved that they spoke a language related to Uralic. Many linguists have for long connected East and West-Eurasia in the proto-Altaic language complex at the very spot where geneticists see the splitting point that gave the birth to the truly modern humans and real Aurignacian culture. Common sense does the rest by considering the map, geography, food sources and the mix of cold-adapted northern-most Neanderthals and Denisovans.
The mongoloid features of Sami people may be explained as follows (also consider evolution map below): The first Europeans were a mix of Mongoloid and Cro-Magnon traits due to the blend of Denisova and northern Neanderthal traits with southern Homos. However, while spreading southward, what we now call the Caucasoid traits (Klevius "bastard belt") increased while the Mongoloid traits got stronger in the north due to pressure from the east.
Cheddar man certainly didn't speak Indoeuropean
Cheddar man was found near Bristol in England. His Finnish/Sami type of DNA closely matches contemporary Brits near the location where the skeleton was found. And the amber found beside him came from the Baltic Sea.
Cheddar man stature is estimated to 166 cm and he has a relatively high (compared to modern Sami but not to modern Finns) crural index and tibial length/trunk height indices but a total morphological pattern considered cold-adapted. This mix is in line with Klevius Out of Africa as pygmies and back as global mongoloids theory, which states that human like Homos what we used to think of as our predecessors were, in fact, big brained but dumb non-humans, and that the smart ones were small ape-like creatures (Floresiensis, Red Deer Cave people, Denisovans etc) who in Euraisa mixed with Neanderthals and later on with the southern Homos from whom we didn't get our intelligence but only part of our physical appearance (in fact, we started loosing intelligence and are now on a much lower level than some 30,000 years ago - just compare the stunning performance of Aurignacian art below). So for example, what has "puzzled" fossilized academics the most about the tiny ape-like Floresiensis with a brain size barely exceeding that of a Chimp, is how to explain its tools, use of fire etc.
Compared to many presumptuous and subjective PC academics Klevius' theory has a much better fit to existing evidence out there.
Doggerland and a harpoon found in it. Altough the historical Goths emerge some 7,000 years later it's worth mentioning that Gotland in the Baltic Sea was already populated more than 9,500 years ago. Moreover, although no one knows the true origin of the name Gotland and Goth confusing efforts have been made to connect the origin of the name to different and less likely later forms such as e.g. 'gut' and 'jut'. Due to an enormous general ignorance there thrives a bias that could be described as a majority complex which blurs topics of evolution and linguistics etc. by covering them under the "Out of Africa" or the "Indo-European" or the "monotheist" blanket. This type of prejudice is easily seen when you, for example, tell an English speaker that the word 'boy' comes from the Finnish/Uralic 'poika'. In fact, if we really start digging we will soon realize that most of the really old Indo-European words can be traced to the original Uralic speaking inhabitants of Europe. Btw, on Gotland 'peika' mens a girl and became maid ('piga') in Swedish. Just like the English word for child that transformed into 'girl'.
Cheddar man has been genetically tested as belonging to haplogroup U5a which happens to be most common today in northern Finland and Scandinavia among Sami people and, to a lesser extent, among Finns. Haplogroup U5 is spread all over Europe but is by far best presented among Finnish speaking populations in the north. That U5 is also found in North-Africa is in line with the mixing theory below. U5a is a latecomer and hence fits a pattern of increasing blend of genes along the Atlantic coastline. U5b is also toprated among Samis as is V.
At this time all hunter-gatherers in mid/northern (and possibly sourhern) Europe talked an Uralic language. Uralic languages preceeded Indo-European and Finno-Ugric languages and, according to linguistics, is today best survived in the Finnish* language. It is important here to realize that proto-Sami people populated all of the fringes of glacial and post-glacial Europe and that Basque language most probably was Sami related although heavily distorted by incoming linguistically non-related farmers, whereas the northern Sami became influenced by related Finnish speakers, hence explaining why today's Sami sounds so Finnish and Basque doesn't sound Finnish at all although it has many features in common with Uralic/Finnish languages.
* As Klevius has pointed out for decades, in Finnish (as in most other languages) there is no sex segregation. A person is 'hän' regardless of sex, not the stupid he/she apartheid Europe has inherited from sexist Mideastern "monotheisms".
To PC-people and others with a racist agenda blurring the facts: Non-African art from 41,000 - 25,000 years ago - i.e. long before anything like this emerged in Mideast or Africa! And one thing is for certain, they weren't neolithic farmers!
In Dolní Věstonice, Central-Europe, an extremely well sculptured portrait is dated to 26-29,000 years ago, i.e. even earlier than the Brassempouy "Venus" portrait below, which was found in Mid-France.
Brassempouy "Venus" approx 26,000 BP
and with some make up by Klevius
From the left: Red Deer Cave, Sami, Cro-Magnon
First and third from the left are Red Deer Cave people 14,300-11,500 years ago. Second and fourth the so called Venus from Brassempuoy in France 25-26,000 years ago. The last pic is a reconstruction of a 1.9 Million year old Homo rudolfiensis skull. They all had flat broad cheeks, no chin and rounded forehead.
From Altai to Gotland, Sami, God, Vikings, Shakespeare and Tolkien
Klevius etymology and history remarks relating to the Britain-Scandinavia connection: The ancient Persian (which is extremely young compared to Uralic) word for god 'khoda' connects to the even more ancient Finnish 'koti' and Finno-Ugric 'kota' (=home/house/seed vessel - see Klevius definition of religion and the Vagina gate), Saami 'goahti'. German Gott (god) and Swedish gott (good) as well as Gotland (pronounced Gottland), the island in the Baltic sea that constituted a (the?) main Viking hub in their slave trade with Jews and muslims.
Gotland in particular is famous as the probable ancestral home of the Goths: "a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD, reaching Scythia at the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they became divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, and established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy. Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in Crimea until the late 18th century.
The father of Shakespeare's prototype for Hamlet was a Goth from the Gothenburg area in Sweden (were Klevius father also happened to be born). These Goths came originally from Gotland via those very same waterways that were shaped already some 9,000 years ago, hence connecting the Baltic Sea with Doggerland/North Sea.
Gotland was also the home port and treasure island for the Vikings because it naturally connected West and East via Staraja Ladoga southeast of Finland on the river way down to the south. Gotland has revealed the biggest hoards of Viking age old Arab/islamic silver coins in Northern Europe.
Immediately north of Staraja Ladoga is the homeland of the Finnish national epic Kalevala which Tolkien based his writing on.
The world's oldest fishing net is found in southeastern Finland and is some thousand years older than Cheddar man the "oldest Brit".
Bromme culture existed in what is today's Sweden already 11,700–11,000 bp.
As a curiosity it might be noted that film director Ingmar Bergman lived most of his life on Gotland where some of his most powerful movies were filmed.
In conclusion one might well argue that the Baltic Sea has been a main hub since the birth of modern humans.
The first version at the top made 1583 and below how it looks today.
The sword held over the lion's head represents the West whereas the one below the lion represents islam (via Khazars, Bolgars, Ottomans etc. - see text below).
Finland/Kvenland - the home of Kalevala and the Vikings
Finland has two official languages, Swedish and Finnish. Finland is also one of the most secularized countries in the world. Finland (and huge parts of what is now Sweden and Norway) was Kvenland before the Christian crusades after which it became connected as part of Sweden for some 600 years until the 1808-9 war against Russia after which Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until Finland's independence 6, December 1917.
After the 1808-9 war the Swedish speaking intellectuals started a campaign, "we are no Swedes anymore, and we don't wanna be Russians - so let's be Finns". This strive made many a Finland-Swede translate their name into Finnish. It also resulted in the collection of the Kalevala epos (which Tolkien used as a basis for his stories). However, Elias Lönnroth's Kalevala was heavily influenced by a monotheist understanding. Luckily Juha Pentikäinen and others have now initiated a rewriting of the text clean from Christian monotheist influences.
Due to its location Finnish (and Saami) possesses extremely old words still in use (see below). And due to the interaction between old Nordic and Finnish a pattern emerged that can still be seen stretching from Finland all the way to Iceland (see below).
No one knows the true origin of the name Kvenland. However, Klevius qualified guess is based on its history of Nordic (and Finnish) speaking (agrarian) coastal Finns robbing beautiful girls with mongoloid characteristics (which pattern you can also trace in reading Kalevala) from its Saami and Finnish speaking neighbors. Raids with light boats was a Finnish specialty inherited from the Finnish and Russian water ways they still frequented (see Origin of Vikings). And when they heard (from the Volga Bolgars and the Jewish Khazars etc) about the enormous demand and price the muslim caliphate paid for these kind of girls the commerce quickly changed from furs to walking girls.
Due to the mix of old Nordic speaking males and Finnish speaking women an early bilingual traditon was born, which helped dealing with both Swedes and Finnish speaking "Russians". At the beginning of the Viking age the "Russians" spoke Finnish which was the main language in what is now northern and mid Russia. This also explains how Fornjotur could be the King of both Finland and Gotland as well as how Rus could become so friendly with the pre-Russians that they asked him for protection against other Vikings, Jews (Khazars) etc.
Finland has for long suffered from what Klevius calls a mongoloid complex (2003). In 1952, only seven years after the end of Finland's disastrous connection with Germany in the World War 2, apart from having its first Olympics the nation celebrated the 17-year old Armi Kuusela's victory in the Miss Universe "beauty" contest, thus finally releasing the Finns from what was considered a traumatic connection with the East and its Russian/mongoloid inhabitants.
The tiny (some 300,000) Finland-Swedish ethnic minority has, apart from the tiresome, bragging and annoying islamophobe named Klevius, produced such names as Edith Södergran (modernist poet), Westermarck (anthropology), Jean Sibelius (music), Georg Henrik von Wright (Wittgenstein's successor), Lasse Wiren (athletics - double-double Olympic winner on 5,000m and 10,000m), Lindberg (music - Kraft etc), Linus Thorvald (Linux), etc etc.
This list clearly implies a Finland-Swedish complex or something (see Inside Klevius mind).
Why surprised about the fact that English is a Nordic language? Klevius has informed about it for almost a decade on the web!
* When Klevius shakes hand with native English speakers he loves to point out that 'finger', 'hand', and 'arm' all are Swedish words with exactly the same spelling and not too different pronunciation. This usually produces a nice "really". However, when he also points out that most of the non-Latin words in English also are Swedish a brief uncertain and incredulous retreat from the topic is noticeable. And, now finally the self-evident fact that even grammar is equal has been pointed out even by others.
English is a Scandinavian/Nordic (Fennoscandian*) language
* No one knows for how long Old Swedish/Nordic language(s) has been spoken in Finland. This is why not only the Scandinavian part but the whole Fennoscandian peninsula ought to be included.
Jan Terje Faarlund, professor of linguistics at the University of Oslo. "Obviously there are many English words that resemble ours. But there is something more: its fundamental structure is strikingly similar to Norwegian.
Klevius (who understands all Nordic languages incl. Finnish and most dialects): Norwegian language emerged after the Viking period (see Origin of Vikings). Its predecessor, i.e. what is called "Old Norse" but perhaps rather should be called Old Swedish or Old Nordic, is rooted in Kvenland from the cross pollination of Finnish and Nordic Germanic. Kvenish today is still very close to Finnish (more so than e.g. Estonian) yet it also contains such pecularities as meiðän ('our') which is simply meidän in Standard Finnish with a normally sounding d instead of the English sounding ð.
Kvenland (Womanland) from Finno-Ugric/Uralic to Old Swedish/Scandinavian/Nordic*
*aka "Old Norse" which might lead associations to Norway although there were no Norwegian speakers around long after the Viking age (see Origin of Vikings).
Kvenland, aka Cwenland, Kænland, Queenland, Kvinnoland, Womanland etc, is an ancient name for an area in Fennoscandia. Compare Swedish 'Kvinna' (woman) and English 'Queen' as well as Norwegian 'kone' (woman) Swedish 'kön' (sex) and English 'kin' (yes, we have Indoeuropean 'gen' but so what, where did 'gen' emerge?).
There exists a persistent "wikimyth" that Finnish language in Sweden and Norway are just a few hundred years old when in fact it's thousands of years old but due to national romanticism was explained away as caused by late immigration only.
As I already said, no one knows for sure why it was called Kvenland. However, a strong hypothesis is that the name reflects sex-slave hunt for beautiful white girls/women who were most valued on the muslim slave markets by the islamic mosques. So the Finnish empire may have existed long before it was called Kvenland.The name was just applied from the outside as a marker of its notorious records.
Kvenland appears in written sourdes from the 9th century, and from Icelandic sources written in the 12th and 13th centuries. Since the 17th century most historians have located Kvenland somewhere around or near the Bothnian Bay, in the present-day regions of Swedish Norrbotten and Finnish Ostrobothnia as well as part of Norway where there are still a Kvenish population. The traditional East Finnish name of this area was Kainuu, and it has been suggested that the Scandinavian name of Kvenland and Kainuu share etymological roots.
Around 890 CE a Northman named Ohthere visited King Alfred of Wessex who had his stories written down by Orosius.
According to Ohthere, the Norðmanna land was very long and very narrow ... and to the east are wild mountains, parallel to the cultivated land. Finnas inhabit these mountains ... Then along this land southwards, on the other side of the mountain, is Sweden ... and along that land northwards, Kvenland (Cwenaland). The Kvens (Cwenas) sometimes make depredations on the Northmen over the mountain, and sometimes the Northmen on them.
There are large [freshwater] meres amongst the mountains, and the Kvens carry their ships over land into the meres, and thence make depredations on the Northmen; they have small and very light ships.
Fornjotur* (ca 160-250 CE), the Finnish King of Kvenland and Gotland, and ancestor of the Swedish Ynglinga tree and William I of England* there is much reason to believe that the legend about Fornjotur has more truth underneath than for example the myth about Mohammed (who was allegedly born 400 years later). Hugh Kennedy (professor of Arabic language and Arabic history): "Before Abd al-Malik (caliph 685-705) Mohammed (dead 632) is never mentioned on any official document whatsoever..."
Fornjotur, Fornjót, Fornjótr) was a king of Finland. His children are Ægir (the ruler of the sea), Logi (fire giant) and Kári (god of wind).
The name has often been interpreted as forn-jótr "ancient giant", and sometimes identified with the primeval giant Ymir. But it is also possible, as was suggested by Müller (1818), that it is one of a well-established group of names or titles of gods in -njótr "user, owner, possessor", which would make Fornjótr the "original owner".
How did primary stress on first syllable come from Kvenland to Iceland?
There was of course another language, Kvenish-Finnish, that was present in Fennoscandia and somehow influenced the ancient Norse language.
Finnish possesses some of the oldest words in the world, some of them still in their original Uralic form. In fact, the old Finnish stem seems to be closer to its distant roots than other Finno-Ugric languages despite the fact that Finland has been the most modernized of them all.
Klevius linguistic question: How was the strange affinity between Indoeuropean Icelandic and Uralic Finnish created between Kvenland and Iceland?
Whereas Indoeuropean languages are strongly rooted in a Neolithic agricultural past Uralic languages are rooted in hunting/gathering societies i.e. pre-Neolithic.
Indoeuropean Old Norse developed into "Western" and "Eastern" variants. Western Norse covered Norway and overseas settlements in Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Shetland Islands, while Eastern Norse developed in Denmark and south-central Sweden and coastal Finland.
The language of Iceland and the non Finnish or Saami Fennoscandia was practically the same up until the 14th century, when they started to deviate from each other.
During the late Old Norse period and this period there was also a considerable adoption of Middle Low German vocabulary. Similar development in grammar and phonology happened in Swedish and Danish, keeping the dialect continuum in continental Scandinavia intact, but with greater dialectal variation. This process did not, however, occur in the same way in Faroese and Icelandic. These languages remain conservative to this day, when it comes to grammar and vocabulary, so mutual intelligibility with continental Scandinavia was lost.
The Uralic languages belong to a single Eurasian belt of agglutinative languages together with the Altaic languages streching from Fennoscandia in the west to Japan in the east
Not only typological parallelism, but also stress on the first syllable as well as lack of third person pronoun sex segregation (e.g. Finnish 'hän' instead of 'he/she' apartheid) is accompanied by areal adjacency, allowing us to speak of a distinct Ural-Altaic language area and language type we may call Eurasiatic.
Some roots for Eurasiatic: mi (what?, mi/kä or mi/tä in modern Finnish), pälä (two), akʷā (water), tik (one or finger), konV (arm 1), bhāghu(s) (arm 2), bük(ä) (bend or knee), punče (hair), p'ut'V (vagina or vulva), snā (smell or nose), kamu (seize or squeeze), and parV (the verb to fly)
Modern Finnish preserves old words equal or almost equal more often than other languages
Examples of reconstructed Proto-Uralic words:
Body parts and bodily functions: *ïpti hair on the head, *ojwa head, *śilmä eye (same as in modern Finnish), *poski cheek (same as in modern Finnish), *kä(x)li tongue ('kieli' in modern Finnish), *elä- to live ('elää' in modern Finnish), *ka(x)li- to die ('kuolla', and 'kuoli' in imperf), *wajŋi breath (in Finnish 'vainaja' means a dead), *kosi cough, *kunśi urine ('kusi' in modern Finnish), *küńili tear ('kyynele' in modern Finnish), *se(x)ji pus.
Kinship terms: *emä mother (same in modern Finnish), *čečä uncle ('setä' in modern Finnish), *koska aunt, *mińä daughter-in-law ('miniä' in modern Finnish), *wäŋiw son-in-law ('vävy' in modern Finnish).
Verbs for universally known actions: *meni- to go ('mennä', 'meni' in imperf in modern Finnish), *toli- to come ('tulla', 'tuli' in imperf in modern Finnish), *aśkili- to step ('askel' is step in modern Finnish), *imi- to suck ('imi' is sucked in modern Finnish), *soski- to chew, *pala- to eat up ('pala' is a piece in modern Finnish), *uji- to swim ('ui' is swim in imperf in modern Finnish), *sala- to steal ('salata' means to hide in modern Finnish), *kupsa- to extinguish ('kupsata' used for to die in modern Finnish).
Basic objects and concepts of the natural world: *juka river ('joki' in modern Finnish), *toxi lake, *weti water ('vesi/vettä' in modern Finnish), *päjwä sun (same but also day in modern Finnish), warmth, *suŋi summer ('suvi' in modern Finnish), *śala- lightning ('salama' in modern Finnish), *wanča root ('vanka', 'vankka' means steady in modern Finnish), *ko(x)ji birch, *ka(x)si spruce ('kuusi' in modern Finnish), *sïksi Siberian pine, *δ'ï(x)mi bird cherry
Elementary technology: *tuli fire (same in modern Finnish), *śüδi coal, *äjmä needle, *pura drill ('pora' in modern Finnish), *jïŋsi bow ('jousi' in modern Finnish), *jänti bow string, *ńï(x)li arrow ('nuoli' in modern Finnish), *δ'ümä glue ('liima' in modern Finnish), *lïpśi cradle, *piksi rope, *suksi ski (same in modern Finnish), *woča fence.
Basic spatial concepts: *ïla below ('alla' in modern Finnish), *üli above ('yli' in modern Finnish), *wasa left ('vasen' in modern Finnish), *pälä side.
Pronouns: *mun I (meaning mine in modern Finnish), *tun you ('sun' meaning yours in modern Finnish), *ke- who (same in modern Finnish), *mi- what (same in modern Finnish).
The reconstructed vocabulary is compatible with a Mesolithic culture (bow, arrow, needle, sinew, but also rope, fence, cradle, ski), a north Eurasian landscape (spruce, birch, Siberian pine), and contains interesting hints on kinship structure.
The Vikings were bilingual (Finland-Swedes) Goths who could communicate both with the Finnish tribes as well as with the old Nordic/German people
In the Viking world the Jewish slave empire (Chazaria) played an important role in establishing the slave raid and trade system that served the enormous islamic hunger for white sex slaves.
Karelia's old coat of arms.
Karelia bordered the medieval Novgorod republic which was ransacked by muslim Bolgars who hunted for slaves. The southern part became an important hub in the islamic slave finance as Vikings and Kazar Jews etc served the islaic caliphate in the south and later on the Ottoman Turks.
Fair skinned female sex slaves from northern Europe were the by far most valuable according to islamic price lists(see more about this here)
Most of what you read about Vikings on the web is wrong. The Viking age started already before 750 in the east (because of islamic demand for sex slaves). So forget about Britain 786. Also remember that if you see the words Norway or Norwegians mentioned re. Vikings then throw the link/book away. There was no Norway or Norwegians or a Norwegian language during the Viking age! Educate yourself on Origin of the Vikings.
In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus.
After the Kievan Russian state began to disintegrate in 1132, slaves became much more numerous as inhabitants of neighboring East Slavic principalities (much of the territory between Poland-Lithuania and the Volga River) became fair game for enslavement.
Jewish merchants took East Slavic slaves from Novgorod to western destinations. Other East Slavic slaves were continuously "harvested" by the Turkic peoples (Tatars) inhabiting the southern and eastern frontiers of Rus' and subsequently sold to buyers mainly in the Arab countries.
The Mongol invasions into Rus' from 1236-1240 accelerated the disintegration of Kievan Rus' that had commenced in 1132.
Continuous Tatar slave raids replaced those of the pre-1240 Turkic peoples who had roamed the Ukranian steppe. In these centuries the word "slave" was borrowed from the ethnonym "Slav."
During the ensuing period of the "Tatar yoke" (1237-1480), the export of slaves through Novgorod continued and the Novgorodian slave market at the intersection of Slave and High Streets was the most active business locale in the entire Republic of Novgorod, which encompassed much of Russia north of the Volga to the White Sea.
The Crimean Tatars had converted to islam in the 1300s and in 1475 the Crimean Khanate became a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire while itself still clinging to power over the Duchy of Muscovy. In 1480, the Muscovites threw off the "Tatar Yoke" and began the unification of Russia under Slavic rulers. By 1503, those rulers would declare Russia the Third Roman Empire, and take the title of Tsar.
The Crimean Tatars made use of their strategic position between the Ottomans and the Russians and supplied slaves for the Ottoman Janissary corps from the neighboring peoples to an enormous extent yet to be fully mapped.
Greedy rulers either married a muslim and naively agreed* to convert or just found islam the perfect sword for evil but profitable slave finance
* Islam is an evil dead end. A totalitarian harpoon that has only one direction unless it's stopped. This is one of the many reasons why islam is completely out of sync with Human Rights - a fact that not only Klevius but also OIC has realized!
Little is known about the timeline of the islamization of Inner Asia and the Turkic peoples who lay beyond the bounds of the caliphate. Around 7th century and 8th century, there were some states of Turkic peoples like Turkic Khazar Khaganate and Turkic Turgesh Khaganete who fought against the caliphate in order to stop Arabization and islamization in Asia. From the 9th century onwards, the Turks (at least individually, if not yet through adoption by their states) began to convert to islam. The Bulgars of the Volga, to whom the modern Volga Tatars trace their islamic roots, are noted to have adopted islamic evil early on. When the Friar William of Rubruck visited the encampment of Batu Khan of the Golden Horde, who had recently completed the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, he noted "I wonder what devil carried the law of Machomet there".
Different political functions of the islamic myth to legitimate power
Quite contrary to the populist academic discourse that within an islamic worldview, the production of "eventually" correct ritual behavior can be a gateway for "the grace of Allah" to produce "correct belief", the crude reality of islam's own tenets points clearly - and without the slightest anomaly from non-islamic history in sight - to a profitable parasitic formula crudely chiseled on pre-existing Judaic dogmas. This formula, which in one sweep eliminates otherwise "puzzling" historical events, goes like this (taken from www.klevius.info):
The root formula of Islam (Klevius 2001)
Slavery+"infidel" racism+sex segregated rapetivism+anti human rights Sharia/apostasy ban.
Why isn't the worst crime ever against humanity criminalized, but instead protected by the very Human Rights islam opposes?!
Converts to islam don't have to understand anything to be a "good muslim" simply because accepting totalitarian islam is the only proof needed. However, other muslims might not approve of it...
Update: Of some reason I couldn't comment normally on the ignorant commentor below. So here's the reply for her/him - you others don't even need it because it clearly comes out of the posting itself if you possess even rudimentary knowledge about the topic:
Show me a perfectly sculptured portrait earlier than 29,000 bp. Or anything even close to the Denisova bracelet earlier than 40,000 bp. Etc., etc., the art track in Eurasia reflects the real birth of what we use to mean intelligent humans, i.e. modern humans - not to be confused with the oxymoron "anatomically modern human", which stands for something that no one knows really what it stands for - other than a desperate effort to keep the roots in Africa, no matter that facts point to the opposite direction.
Yes, all over the old world we have found crude hominin artifacts and lousy works of art - so what? Every serious geneticist (compare e.g. Pääbo) or anthropologist today agree on a crucial "jump" in human sophistication after around 40-50,000 bp. And nothing comparable at this early stage has been found elsewhere.
Pls, use the web to cure your, as it seems, truly bottomless ignorance. Or perhaps you enjoy giving the rest of us a good laugh at your expense...